Volume 6 ~ Issue 5, May - 2016

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Determination of particle size distribution and analysis of a natural food supplement on pectin base

Country

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Bulgaria

Authors

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Svetla Dyankova ||, Maria Doneva||, Yancho Todorov||, Margarita Terziyska

Page No.

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01-08

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The pectin is among the most studied soluble dietary fiber with cholesterol lowering properties. The major difficulty in its use is the slow dissolution and the lumps formation when placed in water. The main objective of this research is through technological methods to achieve a more rapid and complete dissolution of high-esterified citrus pectin in water. The method used is wet granulation with different granulation liquids (sucrose solution, distilled water and water-ethanol mixtures) and the resulting variant granules are tested for particle size distribution, solubility and hydration rate. Granulation of high-methoxyl citrus pectin improves its dissolution in water in comparison with the powder pectin. Also, the hydration rate at the 300th s is greater than 90% with the granulated pectin and only 54% with non-granulated. Among the obtained five variants of granules, the best results are observed in the variant, granulated with 40% (v/v) ethanol. The analysis of the size and distribution of the particles reports the least scattering of the results during the variants granulated with 25% and 40% ethanol, which corresponds to the highest degree of uniformity of the granules.

Keywords - dissolution, granulation, particle size distribution, pectin

[1] E. Theuwissen and R.P. Mensink, Water-soluble dietary fibers and cardiovascular disease. Physiol Behav, 94(2), 2008, 285-292.

[2] A.H. Terpstra, J.A. Lapré, H.T. de Vries and A.C. Beynen, The hypocholesterolemic effect of lemon peels, lemon pectin, and the waste stream material of lemon peels in hybrid F1B hamsters, Eur J Nutr. 41(1), 2002, 19-26.

[3] P. Sriamornsak, Chemistry of pectin and its pharmaceutical uses: A review, Silpakorn University International Journal, 3(1–2), 2003, 206–228.

[4] E. Ginter , F.J. Kubec, J. Vozár and P. Bobek, Natural hypocholesterolemic agent: pectin plus ascorbic acid, International Journal of Viticulture and Natural Resource, 49, 1979, 406-408.

[5] R. H. Walter, Analytical and graphical methods for pectin (Academic Press: San Diago, CA, 1991).

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Mosquito repellency and knockdown effect of a plant based formulation

Country

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Kenya

Authors

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Musau, J. K. ||, Mbaria, J. M. ||, Nguta, J.M. ||, Mbaabu, M. ||, Kiama S.G

Page No.

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09-14

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Personal protection against mosquito bites is an efficient way of preventing mosquito borne diseases. Six plants namely Tagetus minuta L., Adansonia digitata Linn. , Ocimum suave, Plectranthus barbatus A., Azadirachta indica A. Juss. , Lantana camara L were identified for this study. They were formulated in petroleum jelly into formulations of 10% and 20%. When tested on human subjects, they exhibited mosquito repellency effect similar to or greater than N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET) which is the normally accepted positive control. The knockdown effects of the formulations against the mosquitoes were similar or greater than citronella oil. The formulations can be used as alternatives to synthetic repellents which are mostly expensive for everyday use and toxic especially to children. Key words: repellency, knockdown, Aedes aegypti, DEET, formulation

[1]. O.M. Awad, and A. Shimaila, Operational use of neem oil as an alternative anopheline larvicide. Part A: Laboratory and field efficacy, Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, 9, 2003, 4, 637-45 [2]. N. Becker, D. Petric, M. Zgomba, C. Boase, C. Dahl, J. Lane, A. Kaiser, Mosquitoes and their control. Plenum Publishers, 2003, New York, USA

[3]. A .Jahn, S.Y. Kim, J. Choi, D. Kim, Y.J. Ahnc, S.Y. Yong, and J.S. Kim, A bioassay for mosquito repellency against Aedes aegypti: Method validation and bioactivities of DEET analogues, Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 62, 2010, 91–97

[4]. M.W. Service, Lecture notes on medical entomology. Blackwell scientific publications, 1986, London, UK

[5]. B.M. Maniafu, L. Wilber, I.O. Ndiege, C.C. Wanjala, T.A. Akenga, Larvicidal activity of extracts from three Plumbago spp against Anopheles gambiae, Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 104,2009, 6, 813-817

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Evaluation of Psychotropics Consumption In A Psychiatric Emergency Service of A General Hospital

Country

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Brazil

Authors

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Pedro Henrique Martins ||, Thalles Yuri Loiola Vasconcelos ||, Cibelle Tiphane de Sousa Costa ||, Cezar Augusto Ferreira da Silva ||, Tarciana Ferreira Serafim ||, Olindina Ferreira Melo de Chaves

Page No.

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21-30

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Several types of interventions in mental health have been implemented since the Psychiatric Reform to ensure assistance to the population affected by mental disorders. Psychiatric drugs and psychotropic agents are chemicals that act on the central nervous system and affect the mental and emotional functions of individuals. This study aimed to investigate the use of psychoactive substances of Ordinance 344/98 in the Psychiatric Emergency Service of the Hospital General Dr. Estevam Ponte (SEPHG). Research was conducted from January to March 2013. We analyzed the records of 30 admitted patients to SEPHG and their prescriptions. Of these, 20% of the patients came from the Center, 16.6% from Expectativa and 13.3% from Sinha Sabóia and Terrenos Novos, the remaining patients came from other districts of the city of Sobral. There was a higer higher prevalence of males (77%) who were administered psychotropic drugs. The prevalent age range was from 20 to 29 years, which corresponds to 33% in both sexes. The therapeutic classes that were dominant were typical antipsorics, such as haloperidol (96.6%) and benzodiazepines, such as diazepam (90%). There is concern with the use of psychotropic drugs and the need to implement services to ensure their rational use, preserving the health of the population and reducing public spending.
Keywords: Mental health, Psychotropic drugs, Mental disorders, Psychiatric Emergency Services.
[1]. Sims A. Sintomas da Mente: introdução à psicopatologia descritiva. 2 ed. Porto Alegre: Artmed; 2001.
[2]. Brasil. Ministério da Saúde. Secretaria de Atenção à Saúde. DAPE. Coordenação Geral de Saúde Mental. Reforma psiquiatra e política de saúde mental no Brasil. Documento apresentado à Conferência Regional de Reforma dos Serviços de Saúde Mental: 15 anos depois de Caracas OPAS. Brasília, 2005.
[3]. Pacheco WB, Mariz SRA. Assistência Farmacêutica em Saúde Mental no Contexto da Reforma Psiquiátrica. Infarma. 2006;18(1/2):84-6.
[4]. Almeida RN. Psicofarmacologia: fundamentos práticos. Rio de Janeiro: Guanabara Koogan; 2006.
[5]. Goodman AG, Hardman JG, Limbird LE, Molinoff PB, Ruddon RW. Goodman & Gilman: As bases farmacológicas da terapêutica. 11. ed. Rio de Janeiro: McGraw-Hill Interamericana do Brasil; 2006.

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Anti-inflammatory action in drugs of natural origin: Apismellifica L., Arnicamontana L., Digitalispurpurea L., Sambucusnigra L., Thujaoccidentalis L., UrticaurensL. andArctostaphylosuva-ursi L.

Country

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Pakistan

Authors

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Farah-Saeed ||, MansoorAhmad

Page No.

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31-34

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The purpose of the current research work was to explore anti-inflammatory activity of the extracts of Apismellifica L., Arnica montana L., Digitalis purpurea L., Sambucusnigra L., Thujaoccidentalis L., Urticaurens L. andArctostaphylosuva-ursi L. Anti-inflammatory activity was assessed by carrageenan induced paw edema method. A. mellifica (500mg/kg) inhibited 25.64% paw edema in 3.5 hours. Maximum paw inhibition 25.71% was observed in A. montana at the dose of 500 mg/kg at the end of 4.5 hours. D. purpurea (300 mg/kg) exhibited 28.57% carrageenan induced paw inhibition at 4.5 hours. S. nigra (500 mg/kg) revealed maximum paw inhibition 27.42% at 4.5 hours. T. occidentalis (500 mg/kg) exhibited 25.64% maximum paw inhibition in 3.5 hours. 30.76% paw inhibition was exhibited by U. urens (500 mg/kg) at 3.5 hours. A. uva-ursi (500mg/kg) showed maximum inhibition of paw edema (25.64%) in 3.5 hours. The standard drug, Aspirin exhibited maximum anti-inflammatory activity 22.22% at 1.5 hour. This research work has significance as it revealed dose and time dependent anti-inflammatory effect of seven crude extracts.

 

Key words:Anti-inflammatory, carrageenan, insect extract,plant extract.

[1]. Ferrero-Miliani L, Nielsen OH, Andersen PS, Girardin SE. Chronic inflammation: importance of NOD2 and NALP3 in interleukin-1beta generation. Clin.Exp. Immunol, 2, 2007, 227–235.

[2]. Silverstein FE, Faish G, Goldstein JL, Simon LS, Pinus T, Whelton R. Gastro-intestinal toxicity with celecoxibvs non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. J Am Med Assn, 284, 2000, 1247-1255.

[3]. Yesilada E, Ustun O, Sezik E, Takaishi Y, Ono Y, Honda G. Inhibitory effects of Turkish folk remedies on inflammatory cytokines: interleukin-1alpha, interleukin-1beta and tumor necrosis factor alpha. J Ethnopharmacol, 58 (1), 1997, 59-73.

[4]. Corley DA, Kerlikowski K, Verma R, Buffler P. Protective association of aspirin/NSAIDs and esophageal cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Gastroenterology, 124, 2003, 47-56. [5]. National Research Council. Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals, 7th ed. (Washington, DC, 1996, National Academy Press).

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Intravenous immunoglobulin therapy for older children with Kawasaki disease

Country

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Japan

Authors

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Toshimasa Nakada

Page No.

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35-41

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The risk-benefit balance of the full dose intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) infusion of 2 g/kg body weight/dose in older children has not been established. In this study, I investigated the safety and efficacy of this therapy for older children. In total, I recruited 210 children who had received 2 g/kg/dose of IVIG therapy for Kawasaki disease between 1999 and 2015 at the Department of Pediatrics, Aomori Prefectural Central Hospital. The children were divided into two groups: an older group, comprising 18 children who were ≧ 72 months-old, and a younger group, comprising 192 children who were ≦ 71 months-old. The 18 children of the older group received a median IVIG dose of 50 g/dose (range, 36−105). None of the children had any major complications, including thrombosis. The prevalence of coronary artery lesions (CAL) before 30 days of illness was similar between the older and younger groups (1 / 18 vs. 9 / 192, P = 1.000). No older children had CAL after 30 days. An IVIG infusion of 2 g/kg/dose for older children with Kawasaki disease may be safe and effective for suppressing CAL caused by Kawasaki disease.

 

Keywords - Kawasaki disease, Intravenous immunoglobulin therapy, Coronary artery lesions, Older children, Aspirin

[1] Burns JC, Glod é MP. Kawasaki syndrome, Lancet, 364, 2004, 533–544.
[2] Muta H, Ishii M, Sakaue T, Egami K, Furui J, Sugahara Y, Akagi T, Nakamura Y, Yanagawa H, Matsuishi T. Older age is a risk factor for the development of cardiovascular sequelae in Kawasaki disease, Pediatrics 114(3), 2004, 751–754.
[3] Lee KY, Hong JH, Han JW, Lee JS, Lee BC, Burgner D. Features of Kawasaki disease at the extremes of age, J Paediatr Child Health 42(7–8), 2006, 423–427.
[4] Sudo D, Monobe Y, Yashiro M, Sadakane A, Uehara R, Nakamura Y. Case-control study of giant coronary aneurysms due to Kawasaki disease: the 19th nationwide survey, Pediatr Int 52(5), 2010, 790–794.
[5] Research committee of the Japanese Scociety of Pediatric Cardiology; Cardiac Surgery committee for development of guidelines for medical treatment of acute Kawasaki disease. Guidelines for medical treatment of acute Kawasaki disease: report of the Research committee of the Japanese Society of Pediatric Cardiology and Cardiac Surgery (2012 revised version), Pediatr Int 56, 2014, 135–158.

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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The Growing Economic Importance of Medicinal Plants and The Need For Developing Countries To Harness From it: A Mini Review

Country

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Nigeria

Authors

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Bukata B. Bukar ||, Danlami W. Dayom ||, Mary O. Uguru

Page No.

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42-52

Paper Index
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The need for self-reliance by developing countries in the prevailing global economic recession as it affects research and development, production, procurement, distribution and consumption of pharmaceuticals is reviewed in this paper. These hard economic realities and the widening economic parity between the high and low income countries have made the later solely dependent on the former for almost all of their pharmaceutical needs. As a result, most, if not all of the developing countries import their medicines from their developed counter-parts, mostly at prohibitive prices and in most cases without regard to the endemic disease conditions associated with such developing countries. Global statistics has revealed the continued growing economic importance of medicinal plants and plant-based pharmaceuticals which developing countries can harness to improve their pharmaceutical supplies that can impact positively on their healthcare delivery system. This is premised on the fact that most of these medicinal plants are abundantly indigenous in these developing countries that export them at very cheap rates to developed countries only to import pharmaceuticals made from them at very exorbitant prices that most often affect their foreign exchange. It is for these reasons and perhaps among others not mentioned, that this review suggests the need to intensify research into ethno-medicine as this can turn to address the current precarious supply and reduce the burden of import of essential medicines by the developing nations.

 

Keywords: Medicinal Plants, "Pharmerging", Healthcare, Low-Income, Pharmaceuticals, .

[1] ShellardEJ.The significance of research into medicinal plants. In: African medicinal, Proceeding of a conference, Sofowora A (ed), University of Ife Press, Nigeria, 1979; pp 98-111

[2] Lambo TA. Constraints against self-reliance in the availability of effective drugs. World Health Forum 1980; 1(1): 5-7

[3] Gunaratne VJ. Bringing down drug cost: the Sri-Lankan example. World Health Forum 1980; 1: 117-112

[4] Lu Y, Hernandez P, Abegunde D et al.Medicine Expenditure. In: World medicine situation 2011, Geneva, WHO, pp 43-76

[5] Kaplan W, Mathers. Global health trends: Global burden of dieases and pharmaceutical needs. In: The world medicine situation 2011, Geneva, WHO, pp2-21

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Profile of drugs for treatment of comorbidities in patients with cancer and associated levels of anxiety and depression

Country

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Brazil

Authors

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A.S. Ferreira ||, B.P. Bicalho ||, S. J. H. Duarte ||, R. B. Cavalcante ||, R. M. Machado

Page No.

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53-60

Paper Index
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Managing cancer patients requires numerous drugs, such as chemotherapeutic agents and drugs for other chronic diseases. Thus, health teams must be aware of potential drug interactions that may be detrimental to health. This study analyzed the types of non-chemotherapeutic drugs used by cancer patients and screened patients undergoing cancer treatment for anxiety and depression. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 138 cancer patients receiving treatment at a reference center in Divinopolis, a city in the midwestern region of the state of Minas Gerais, from June to July 2014. Drug-related data were recorded in a form created by the authors, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was used for screening the patients for anxiety and depression. Results: Most patients (62.32%) were taking non-chemotherapeutic and chemotherapeutic agents. Eighty-nine types of drugs were reported. The most common drug classes were those that act on the cardiovascular and nervous systems, alimentary tract, and metabolism. Most patients were taking more than one drug, and 14 patients were taking 6 or more classes of drugs. The number of drug classes correlated with marital status and type of treatment. Anxiety and depression were found in 31.16% and 25.37% of the patients, respectively, and depression correlated with type of cancer (p< 0.048). Conclusion: The non-chemotherapeutic drugs taken by patients undergoing cancer treatment does not differ from those taken by the general population. Health professionals must bear in mind these patients' vulnerability to side effects and drug interactions, carefully assessing the risks and benefits of treatment and taking into account associated comorbidities, such as anxiety and depression.

 

Keywords: Mental Health, Drug Incompatibility, Patient-Centered Care

[1]. E. V. Mendes, As redes de atenção à saúde, Cienc Saude Coletiva, 2010, 15, 2297-2305

[2]. S. L. Slabaugh, V. Maio, M. Templim, S. Aboizad, Prevalence and Risk of Polypharmacy among the Elderly in an Outpatient Setting, Drugs & aging, 27, 2010, 1019-028.

[3]. M. F. D. Gaui, Interações medicamentosas no paciente oncológico, Onco&, 3, 2010, 19-23.

[4]. T. B. Melgaço, J. S. Carrera, D. E. B. Nascimento, C. S. F. Maia, Polifarmácia e ocorrências de possíveis interações medicamentosas. Rev Paraense Med, 25, 2011, 25-30

[5]. S. M. B. Bottino; R. Fráguas, W. F. Gattaz, Depression and câncer, Rev Psiqu Clinica, 36, 2009, 109-115.

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Comparison of ondensetron and metoclopramide in the prevention of nausea, vomiting after laparoscopic cholycystectomy

Country

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India

Authors

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Dr Vasudha jadhav ||, Dr Ranjeetsinha jadhav ||, Dr Trupti deshpande

Page No.

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61-63

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Patient undergoing laparoscopic cholycystectomy are at risk of experiencing post operative nausea and svomiting (PONV). The aim of the study was to evaluate and compare the antiemetic efficacy of ondensetron and metoclopramide when given preoperatively for prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting after laparoscopic cholycystectomy, 7 minutes prior to induction of anaesthesia 60 patients received in a randomizede double blind manner injection ondensetron or injection metoclopramide .2mg/kg or placebo(n=10 per group).intravenously pa patients were then observed for the next 24 hrs after administration . During 24hrs after LC , the percentage of patients free of nausea and vomiting were 58% with ondensetron ,52% with Metoclopramide and 46% with placebo . There were no significant differences between the groups . The overall risk of adverse effects did not differ and(p<0.05) . the result in our study suggests that ondensetron and metoclopramide when given prophylactically. Before induction of balanced general anaesthesia were not significantly effective to central ponv in laparoscopic cholycystectomy in comparison to placebo.

 

Keywords: Antiemetic, Nausea, Vomiting. Pharmacology: Ondensetron, Metoclopramide. Surgery; Laparoscopic cholycystectomy.

[1]. Watcha MF,White PF.Postoperative nausea and vomiting .Its etiology treatment and prevention. Anesthesiology 1992;77162-84.
[2]. Rudra A.Roy A.Postoperative nausea and vomiting-Review Article.Indian J Anesth 1996;44:226-36.
[3]. Santoa JM. Anaesthesia for laparoscopic cholycystectomy.Anaesthesia 1991;46:317(letter).
[4]. Litomi T,Toriumi S,Kondo A,Akazawa T,nakhaharaT.Incidence ofnausea and vomiting after cholycystectomy performed via laparotomy or laparoscopy.Masui 1995;44:1627-31.
[5]. Biswas BN, Rudra A. Comparison of granisetron and granisetron plus dexamethasone for prevention of post operative nausea and vomitsing after laparoscopic cholycystectomy ,Acta Anaesthesiology Scandinavica 2003;47:79-83.

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Biochemical And Hematological Study On Butanol Fraction Of Leaves Of Moringa Stenopetala In Experimental Rats

Country

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Ethiopia

Authors

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Abdu Hassen Musa ||, Prabhanjan Kumar Vata ||, Girmai Gebru ||, Yalemtsehay Mekonnen ||, Asfaw Debella ||, and Eyasu Makonnen

Page No.

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64-68

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Objective: The objective of the present study was to investigate the sub-chronic toxic effects of butanol fraction of leaves of M. stenopetala on blood parameters of experimental rats. Methods: For this study the rats were divided into three groups. Group I, the control group received distilled water, while the experimental groups: group II received 500 and group III received 1000mg/kg for 63 days by oral gavage. At the end of the experiment blood samples were collected and examined for hematological and biochemical parameters. Results: Treated rats showed no significant changes on hematological and biochemical parameters except blood glucose level (p<0.05)) as compared with the controls. Conclusion: Although, butanol fraction of leaves of M.stenopetala did not produce adverse effects on hematological & biochemical parameters, further detailed studies should be carried out on other vital organs to recommend its therapeutic use.

 

KEYWORDS: Hematological, Biochemical, parameters, Moringa stenopetala, Experimental rats.

[1]. Adebayo, J., Adeskan, A., Olatunji, L., Buoro, D., and Soladoye, A. (2008). Effect of ethanolic extract of Baugainvilleaspectabilis leaves on hematological and serum lipid variables in rats' kidney. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 88: 69-72.
[2]. Abuye, C., Urga, K., Knapp. H., Selmar, D., Omwega, A.M., Imungi, J.K. and Winterhalter, P. (2003). A compositional study of Moringastenopetalaleaves. East African Medical Journal, 80 (5): 247-252.
[3]. Delaney, C.A. J. (2008). Exotic companion medicine handbook for veterinarians. Zoological Education Network. Lake Worth, Florida. pp: 110-119.
[4]. Dirikolu, L., Chakkath, T., Ball-Kell, S., Elamma, C. and Schaeffer, D.J. (2011). Subchronic toxicity (90 days) ofStemEnhance™ in Wistar rats. Nutrition and Dietary Supplements, 3:19–30.
[5]. Debella, A. (2002). Manual for photochemical screening of medicinal plants. Department Drug Research, EHNRI, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. pp: 10-15.

 

Paper Type

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Research Paper

Title

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Dyslipidemia: the hidden sector of hypertension

Country

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Egypt

Authors

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Islam Kamal ||, Hadir M Abdelkader

Page No.

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69-73

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Hypertension is one of the commonest leading causes to death with no one protected from developing it. It has many developing causes from idiopathic to stress and hyperlipidemia. 60.7% - 64.3% of hypertensive individuals were found to be hypercholesterolemic. From simply a faulty life style to a genetic cause of lipoprotein lipase mutation, dislipidemia develops and unfortunately patients remain unaware of their condition as it's asymptomatic so it's more likely to be discovered by chance. Lipid absorption start with solubilisation by different lipase enzymes and detergent such as bile acids then transported through blood stream by lipoproteins to be stored as esters in liver. These circulating lipids may form plaques on the vessels' lining along with other components threatening the lumen to be closed and stiff walled thus decreasing blood flow. Prevention and control of hyperlipidemia still remains to start with life style modifications. Like most disease, in recent years the consuming life style adapted affected our health aspect. With proper diet and physical exercise, patients improve their outcome with the medications aiding them in their long journey. But beware; controlling the lipid profile will not be complete without the control of the associated HTN due to their synergistic effect on cardio-vascular risk.

 

Key words: Hypertension, dyslipidemia

[1]. Organization WH. Global atlas on cardiovascular disease prevention and control. 2011.
[2]. Townend J. Guidelines on guidelines. Lancet. 2007;370(9589):740. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(07)61376-2.
[3]. Hypertension/High Blood Pressure Health Center.Retreived from http://www.webmd.com/hypertension-high-blood-pressure/guide/blood-pressure-causes.
[4]. Hyperlipidemia. Retrived from https://www.vascularweb.org/vascularhealth/Pages/hyperlipidemia.aspx.
[5]. Egan BM, Li J, Qanungo S, Wolfman TE. Blood pressure and cholesterol control in hypertensive hypercholesterolemic patients: National health and nutrition examination surveys 1988-2010. Circulation. 2013;128(1):29-41. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.112.000500.