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Volume 2 - Issue 1 (Jan - Feb 2012)
|1||A histological study on acrylamide and cadmium chloride altered chick embryonic liver
Dr. Thyaga Raju Kedam, Ruxana Begum Sheik, Malekar Meena Bai, SK HaseenaBhanu
DOI : 10.9790/3013-021018
Histology is the study of the microscopic anatomy of cells and tissues. The present study was made on control and treated chick embryonic liver tissues using toxic compounds like acrylamide (AC) & cadmium chloride (Cd), on the morphological modification of embryonic liver and hepatic cells. The metal ion, Cd, had severe damaging effect on chick embryonic liver than AC and however our study has revealed that these two are causing damage to the embryos.
Keywords: Acrylamide, Cadmium chloride, Chick embryonic liver tissues
|2||Involvement of Calcium and Vitamin C in Type 2 Diabetes
Anubha Shukla, Siddharth Priyadarshi, and Imteyaz Qamar
DOI : 10.9790/3013-0210920
|3||Synthesis and pharmacological evaluation of N-[4-(t-amino)-2-
Zuhair Muhi-eldeen, Elham Al-kaissi, Riad Awad, Najah Al-Muhtaseb, Kassim Al shamma
DOI : 10.9790/3013-02102129
A series of aminoacetylenicoxyphthalimide namely N-[4-(t-amino)-2-butynyloxy] phthalimides were synthesized from the reaction of N-hydroxyphthalimide with propargyl bromide in sodium ethoxide to generate N-(2-butynyloxy)phthalimide. The desired compounds were prepared through Mannich reaction of N-(2-butynyloxy)phthalimide with formaldehyde, appropriate amine in peroxide-free dioxin and cuprous chloride as catalyst. The N-[4-(t-amino)-2-butynyloxy] phthalimides were investigated for their rectal temperature, motor activity and palpebral pitosis effects in comparison with harmaline, all compounds showed similar activity to harmaline, however compound 4 was more potent than harmaline.
Keywords: Aminoacetylenicoxyphthalimide, aminoacetylenic moiety, locomotors activity, MAO inhibitors, oxyphthalimide derivatives, palpebral pitosis
|4||HPTLC Studies on the Phenyl Propanoids of Albizia lebbeck Benth
Md. Nazneen Bobby, Wesely EG, Johnson M
DOI : 10.9790/3013-02103040
The present study was aimed to find out the phenyl propanoids HPTLC profile of the medicinally important plant Albizia lebbeck Benth. HPTLC studies were carried out following Harborne and Wagner et al. method. The Toluene-ethyl acetate (9.3:0.7) was served as mobile phase for phenyl propanoids. Linear ascending development was carried out in 20 cm x 10cm twin trough glass chamber (Camag, Mutenz, Switzerland) saturated with the mobile phase and the chromatoplate development for two times with the same mobile phase to get good resolution of phytochemical contents. The developed plate was sprayed with Vanillin sulphuric acid reagent as spray reagent and dried at 120° C in hot air oven for 10 min. The petroleum ether extracts of A. lebbeck leaves displayed the presence of 13 types of phenyl propanoids with 13 different Rf values ranged from 0.02 to 0.92. The ethyl acetate extract of A. lebbeck leaves illustrated the presence of 14 different types of phenyl propanoids with 14 different Rf values with range from 0.01 to 0.94. The methanolic extract of A. lebbeck leaves demonstrated the presence of 6 different types of phenyl propanoids with 6 different Rf values. Maximum number (14) of phenyl propanoids has been observed in ethyl acetate extracts and petroleum ether followed by ethyl acetate (13) extracts of A. lebbeck leaves. The results of the present study developed novel phytochemical marker to identify the medicinally important plant. Further advanced spectroscopic and chromatographic studies will lead for the structural elucidation and identification of active components present in the leaves of A. lebbeck.
Keywords: Phenyl propanoids, finger print, Phytochemistry
|5||Chromatographic Studies on the Tannins of Aerva lanata (L.) Juss. Ex Schultes
Yamuna Devi M, Wesely EG, Johnson M
DOI : 10.9790/3013-02104151
The present study was intended to establish the HPTLC tannins profile of the medicinally important plant Aerva lanata (L.) Juss. Ex Schultes. HPTLC profiling was performed out by the method described by Harborne and Wagner et al. The Toluene-Ethyl acetate-Formic acid-Methanol (3: 3: 0.8: 0.2) was employed as mobile phase for tannins. Linear ascending development was carried out in 20 cm x 10cm twin trough glass chamber (Camag, Mutenz, Switzerland) saturated with the mobile phase and the chromatoplate development for two times with the same mobile phase to get good resolution of phytochemical contents. The developed plate was sprayed with 5% Ferric chloride reagent as spray reagent and dried at 100° C in hot air oven for 10 min. The methanolic extract of stem, leaves, root, flower and seeds of A. lanata illustrated the presence of 24 different types of tannins with 24 different Rf values with range 0.01 to 0.93. In general, higher degree of tannins diversity has been observed in vegetative parts when compared to the reproductive parts. Maximum number (10) of tannins has been observed in flowers and seeds followed by leaves (9). The tannins with the Rf value 0.01 is present commonly in the aerial parts (stem, leaves and flowers & seeds) of the plant. The tannins with the Rf values 0.53, 0.67 and 0.80 show their joint presence in stem and leaves of A. lanata. The results of the present study provided a valuable phytomarker for the identification and characterization of A. lanata. Further pharmacological studies are going on this plant in order to isolate, identify, characterize and elucidate the structure of the bioactive compounds.
Keywords: Tannins, Chemical Profiling, Phytoconstituents, Tannins
|6||Screening And Standardisation Of Bacopa Monnieri Used As Medicine In Homoeopathy Using Hptlc Method
Amit Khandagale, Damodar Shanbhag
DOI : 10.9790/3013-02105256
In this study, we have chosen HPTLC as a method of analysis to develop a standard procedure based on fingerprinting characteristics for the evaluation of homoeopathic formulations. A simple and accurate HPTLC method has been developed for the quantification of Bacoside- A and fingerprinting of the in-house mother tincture considered here to be a standard with that of different marketed samples available from manufacturers of homoeopathic medicines in India. This HPTLC method was quantitatively evaluated in terms of stability, repeatability, accuracy and calibration providing the utility in the analysis of the mother tincture.
Keywords: HPTLC, Standardisation, Mother Tincture, Bacoside-A, Fingerprint, MWL, Spectra
|7||Greater Prevalence of Depression in Type I Diabetic Patients: Correlation with Decreased Plasma Tryptophan
Saida Haider, Saara Ahmad, Saima Khaliq, Saiqa Tabassum, Zehra Batool, Darakhshan J Haleem
DOI : 10.9790/3013-021005761
The present study was designed to determine the frequency of major and minor depression in type I Diabetes and to relate the occurrence of depression with plasma tryptophan levels. Study was conducted during the period January 2011 to September 2011 at two private hospitals of North Nazimabad in Karachi; Hanif hospital and Haleem hospital. 100 diabetic subjects were selected out of which 50 were males and 50 were females. Likewise the controls were also in the same number. Patients with type II diabetes mellitus and hypertension were excluded from the study. The study was done to evaluate major and minor depression in diabetic and control subjects. Blood samples from all the participants were collected in fasting from anticubital vein to determine plasma TRP levels. Plasma TRP levels were measured by HPLC-UV method. Our data showed that among the control male subjects 5% were having minor depression while 95% were with no depression, while among test subjects 34% were having major depression, 66% were with minor symptoms of depression. However, among the female controls 13% were suffering with minor depression while 87% were with no depression. Among the female test subjects, 50% were having major depression and 50% were having minor depression. Present study showed a significant (p<0.01) decrease in plasma tryptophan levels in both male and female diabetic patients as compared to healthy non-diabetic controls. The present finding suggests that frequency of major and minor depression is increased in diabetes. Present findings indicate that decreased plasma TRP levels and lowered brain 5-HT levels may be responsible for depression seen in diabetics.
Keywords: 5-HT, Depression, Diabetes, Plasma TRP
|8||Phytochemical Constituents Of The Leaves Of Sterculia Setigera
Hamidu, Abubakar Ahmed
DOI : 10.9790/3013-02106264
Many countries of the world particularly Africa are abundantly blessed in terms of plants most of which exist in the wild. Some of these are consumed as leafy vegetable particularly as source food and as curative therapeutic agent for relieving pain and curing ailments. Hence the practical need for phytochemically screening these plants and proper characterisation of these sleeping giants for their utilization as precursors in pharmaceutical related applications. This systematic documented procedure could serve as useful information sources for drug related applications and facts to buttress the claims by the traditional forerunners and subsequent comparison of orthodox and traditional systems. In this regard, Elucidation of the crude drug of STERCULIA SETIGERA, (family: STERCULIACEAE) leaves was carried out in terms of physico-chemical techniques. Phytochemcial screening showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, phenolic and glycosides. The powdered plant subsequent extraction was carried out with methanol. Further analysis was carried out for quantitative determinations of sugars by TLC. The methanolic extract tested positive for all the phytoconstituents under the present investigation. TLC analysis of the methanolic extract gave three spots RF values of 0.86 for aglycone and 0.92 for flavonoidal glycoside (Glycon).Reducing and non reducing sugars were also carried out by hydrolysis. A positive test was obtained for the presence of reducing and non-reducing sugars.
Keywords: Flavonoidal glycosides, Reducing Sugar, RF values, phytochemical constituents, phytochemical screening.
|9||Gonadoreline Hormone Ameliorate The Deleterious Effects Of Nicotine On Uterine Performances During Pregnancy: Animal Model Study
Hayder M. Al-kuraishy, Salah A.Al-weendy, ALI.I Al-gareeb, Iman N.A.Al-bajajy, Ali K.Albuhadilly, Ammar A.Al-hafeth
DOI : 10.9790/3013-02106571
This study was conducted on females rabbits of Newzealand white rabbit which was as an experimental model.The aim of this study is to elucidate the the effects of tobacco smoke exposures at doses 10 cigarettes and 20 cigaettes /day alone and in combination with of gonadoreline hormone subcutaneously ;which was exposed daily from first day of gestation until the time of delivery .then showing the effects of litter boy weight in correlation with pregnancy period. Results of this study showed that exposures to cigarette smoke alone in different doses reduced the litter body and pregnancy period consequentially(p<0.05).while exposures to cigarette smoke under effects of gonadoreline insignificantly affects these parameters(p>0.05).
Keyword: Gonadoreline , Nicotine , Uterine Performances , Pregnancy and Animale Model .
|10||Preparation of Chitosan Scaffolds for Tissue Engineering using Freeze drying Technology
Tarun Garg, Arsh Chanana, Ravi Joshi
DOI : 10.9790/3013-02107273
|11||Theories of Immunosurveillance/Immunoevasion: An attempt to explain Persistence of Cancer
Kirtimaan Syal, Dibyajyoti Banerjee
DOI : 10.9790/3013-02107475
|12||Induction of anthocyanin pigment in callus cultures of Solanum melongena L. in response to plant growth regulators and light
B. Chaudhary, K. Mukhopadhyay
DOI : 10.9790/3013-02107680
Anthocyanins are natural pigments which have various health benefits and are potential candidate for use in the pharmaceutical industries. The fruits and vegetables containing anthocyanins have proved to be beneficial for humans due to their antioxidant activity. For the present study purple brinjal (Solanum melongena L.) is selected as the anthocyanin source. The type of anthocyanins in the peels of this vegetable has been determined as nasunin which is identified as delphinidin-3-(p-coumaroylrutinoside)-5-glucoside. The present study attempts to produce pigmented callus from in vitro grown seedlings of purple brinjal as explants. Various combinations of phytohormones were added to the culture media and the induction of pigmented callus was studied. The effect of light intensity was also considered. The best results were recorded when Naphthalene Acetic Acid (NAA) at 1 mg L-1 was used with Kinetin at 0.25 and 0.1 mg L-1 , at a light intensity of 4000 lux. The total anthocyanin accumulation in the pigmented callus was calculated as 70 μg g-1. This type of study in S. melongena is being reported for the first time to the best of our knowledge.
Keywords: Anthocyanins, antioxidant, phytohormones, pigmented callus, purple brinjal, Solanum melongena.
|13||Enhancement Of Entrapment Efficiency Of Porous Chitosan Scaffold Formulation By The Addition Of Peg 4000
Tarun Garg, Arsh Chanana, Govind Sharma
DOI : 10.9790/3013-02108182
|14||Gene Xpert MTB/RIF Assay: A New Hope for Extrapulmonary Tuberculosis
Ankush Raj, Netrapal Singh, Promod K. Mehta
DOI : 10.9790/3013-02108389
The diagnostic efforts for extrapulmonary tuberculosis (TB) have been severely hampered by the lack of diagnostic tests that are accurate, simple to use and can be applied at the point of clinical care. This has been further enhanced by the widespread inability to test for drug resistance. Gene Xpert® MTB/RIF test offers new and essential possibilities for the diagnosis of TB especially extrapulmonary TB and rifampicin resistance. This unique test can be used almost everywhere with minimal technical expertise, enabling diagnosis of TB and simultaneous assessment of rifampicin resistance to be completed within 2 h. In low-income countries, however, its cost, environmental limitations and difficulties involved in supply and maintenance are major obstacles. While it may be suitable for major reference hospitals, operational research is needed to evaluate the test and its additional yield above high-quality smear microscopy. In high burden countries like India, WHO in 2010 endorsed some guidelines for implantation of Gene Xpert® MTB/RIF test for diagnosis of TB and drug resistance.
Keywords: extrapulmonary tuberculosis, Gene Xpert® MTB/RIF, rifampicin, drug resistance, WHO,
|15||Chemistry & Allied Sciences – Emerging Future Technologies to Boost up Lives
Neelam Gurnani, Dr.Nisha Kapoor, Dr. Madhu Gupta & Dr. B. K. Mehta
DOI : 10.9790/3013-02109096
Man from ancient time started to discover and use fire due to the necessity thereof. So Necessity can be considered mother of all type of developments going around us. The class of development differs from person to person entirely based upon the curiosity inside. Some researchers believe in the sustainable developments of the processes but on the other hand industrial developmental approach makes us to develop the processes and technologies that are approachable to common people, but these industrially driven technologies sometimes neglect our most precious environmental security. So with all that progress we are also facing challenges in forms of fatal diseases like skin cancer, Global Warming, environmental disasters etc. Now, future is to develop the things in a very wise, planned and sustainable manner creating a "win-win" situation all around. Here authors have tried to discuss the future of the developmental chemistry and related science that will come true in near future to ease our lives without harming our surroundings. One side Energy crisis of world is expected to be solved with the research and exploration of more number of green fuels, on the other side medicinal treatment is going to be very advance with emerging technology of Nanorobotics. Research trends and future applications of carbon nanotubes, genetics and green chemistry are also discussed along with efforts going on for extension of human life.
Keywords: Global Warming, Win-Win situation.
|16||Synthesis, characterization and evaluation of in vitro antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of 2-(4-oxo-2-phenylquinazolin-3(4H)-yl) substituted acetic acids
B.Haseena Banu, K.Bharathi and KVSRG Prasad
DOI : 10.9790/3013-021097104
Quinazolinone nucleus is a very attractive and useful scaffold in medicinal chemistry. It had been a pharmacophore in a wide variety of biologically active compounds. Peptides are key regulators in cellular and intercellular physiological responses and possess enormous promise for the treatment of pathological conditions. Prompted by therapeutic importance of quinazolinones and peptide derivatives, these two vital moieties were combined together into a single molecule by varying the different amino acids were synthesized, characterized and evaluated for anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activities.
Keywords: Amino acids,antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, benzoxizanone, peptides,quinazolinone
|17||Microwave assisted synthesis of Pharmacologically active N-phenyl acetamide derivatives of indolo [2, 3-b] quinoxaline
Krishnakant T.Waghmode, Nandini R.Pai
DOI : 10.9790/3013-0210105108
We have developed rapid and efficient method for the synthesis of pharmacologically active N-phenyl acetamide derivatives of indolo [2, 3-b] quinoxaline by using microwave irradiations. Condensation of Substituted phenyl iodoacetamide derivatives with indolo [2, 3-b] quinoxaline under the influence of microwave radiations gave the products. Microwave assisted synthesis not only reduced the reaction time drastically but also gave excellent yields of N-phenyl acetamide derivatives of indolo [2, 3-b] quinoxaline.
Keywords: Excellent yields, Indolo [2, 3-b] quinoxaline, Phenyl iodoacetamides, Microwave irradiations.
|18||Gallic Acid Production And Tannase Activity Of Penicillium Purpurogenum Stoll Employing Agrobased Wastes Through Solid State Fermentation : Influence Of Carbon And Nitrogen Sources
S. Bhaskar Reddy, Vandana Rathod
DOI : 10.9790/3013-0210109112
The influence of various carbon sources and nitrogen sources on tannase and gallic acid production in SSF by P. purpurogenum BVG7 was studied. Sugars were beneficial only up to 0.2% concentrations and higher levels inhibited tannase and gallic acid production. Amongst the various N compounds (NH4NO3, NH4Cl, NaNO3, and KNO3) supplemented to the substrates, NH4NO3 even at much lower concentration was the most beneficial even at lower concentrations than others for gallic acid production.
|19||Improved and Novel Methods Of Pharmaceutical Calculations
DOI : 10.9790/3013-0210113129
It is a review and research article wherein general equations are derived for some problems and new rules are framed on percentage calculations, ratio and proportions and on variation of surface area with respect to size of the particle. Percentage calculations are projected from novel angles. Dimensions or units of quantities are retained up to the result. An easy method for solution of ratio and proportions are suggested. Problems solved by alligation method in the books are solved by simple algebraic method with little new rules.